In Luganda, the widest spoken minority language in East African country Uganda, the word for photographs is 'ebifananyi'. However, 'ebifananyi' does not, contrary to the etymology of the word 'photographs', relate to light writings. 'Ebifananyi' instead means 'things that look like something else'. Ebifananyi are likenesses.
The research project explores the consequences that this particular conceptualization of photographs has for present day visual culture in Uganda as well as for its historical context. It also discusses my artistic practice as a research method, which led to the digitization of numerous collections of photographs which were previously unavailable to the public. This resulted in eight books and in exhibitions that took place in Uganda and in Europe.
The research was conducted in collaboration with both human and non-human actors. These actors included photographs, their owners, Ugandan picture makers as well as visitors to the exhibitions that were organized in Uganda and Western Europe. This methodology led to insights into differences in the production and uses of, and into meanings given to, photographs in both Ugandan and Dutch contexts.
Understanding the differences between 'ebifananyi' and photographs shapes the communication about photographs between Luganda and English speakers. Reflection on the conceptualizations languages offer for objects and for sensible aspects of the surrounding world will help prevent misunderstandings in communication in general.
Photos of the exhibition ‘Ebifananyi – Mutualities’ installed in the gallery of the Royal Academy of Art The Hague, 8 November – 1 December 2018. The exhibition presented a selection of work by Andrea Stultiens produced within the framework of her PhD research project.
Photography by Gert Jan van Rooij
An interview with Andrea Stultiens in the exhibition ‘Ebifananyi – Mutualities’ installed in the gallery of the Royal Academy of Art The Hague, 8 November – 1 December 2018. The exhibition presented a selection of work by Andrea Stultiens produced within the framework of her PhD research project.